Dropdowns present a list of options that can be used to filter or sort existing content.


Dropdowns (also known as a dropdown menu, drop menu, pull-down list, picklist) is a graphical control element, similar to a list box, that allows the user to choose one value from a list. When activated, it displays (drops down) a list of values, from which the user may select one. They can be used in menus and tabs.


Use when

  • Filtering or sorting content on a page.
  • Single selection from a list is necessary.

Don’t use when

  • Providing only two options. Instead, use a Radio Group or a Switch.


  • Dropdowns can be activated by clicking a button, an icon, or a header. See Inputs for dropdowns in form input fields.
  • Dropdown functionality is indicated by a small trailing arrow or an ellipsis (not applicable to icon dropdowns).
  • Within a dropdown, you can separate groups of related menu items with a divider.


  • Make sure the items in the list are in logical order (alphabetical, chronological, order of importance, etc.)
  • If no item is preselected, use something like “Select a vendor” or “Select an account” in ghost or hint text format. If you can’t gray out the text, you can use some kind of indicator, like parentheses.
  • If you need to, you can display ”None” as one of the options. It should have the same text formatting as the other options in the list.
  • Dropdowns are activated by clicking, not hovering.


  • Present drop-down selections in sentence case (“Select an account”). If the drop-down list contains formal names, such as customer names or accounts, then those selections will appear in title case.
  • Don’t use “deselect.” Instead, use “clear.” The term “deselect” causes a problem for localization.
  • The list of options should be sorted in a consistent order (alphabetical, chronological, the most selected option, or by order of importance).
  • Don’t end text in a select with a period.
  • Keep option names as brief as possible. Aim for under 5 words.


  • The element that opens the menu has role button.
  • The element with role button has aria-haspopup set to either menu or true.
  • When the menu is displayed, the element with role button has aria-expanded set to true. When the menu is hidden, it is recommended that aria-expanded is not present. If aria-expanded is specified when the menu is hidden, it is set to false .
  • The element that contains the menu items displayed by activating the button has role menu.
  • Optionally, the element with role button has a value specified for aria-controls that refers to the element with role menu.
  • With focus on the button, “Enter” or “Space” opens the menu and places focus on the first menu item. Up and down arrows move focus through menu items.
What's Changed
03/14/20221.3.0Removed contradictory directions.W. Pritchard, E. Gunther